Trevor J. Orchard, MD, M.Med.Sci., FAHA, FACE
Professor Epidemiology, Pediatrics and Medicine
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA 15261
3512 Fifth Avenue
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Dr. Trevor Orchard, a physician epidemiologist, has served over 25 years as PI of the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC), which has been awarded MERIT status, and over 15 years as PI for the Pittsburgh DCCT/EDIC site. The EDC has published over 150 papers on type 1 diabetes complications. A major focus of the EDC Study has been renal complications, including the recent demonstration that all excess mortality is associated with micro (or worse) albuminuria. Dr. Orchard, an experienced clinical trialist, has received continual NIH research funding as a PI since 1980. He currently serves on the DCCT/EDIC Publications and Analysis Committee, and chairs three writing groups (SCOUT, Haptoglobin and Mortality) and performs similar roles for the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS). He has considerable experience in the epidemiology of mortality and diabetes complications, and in mortality/morbidity classification, having also performed such activities for the Community Cardiovascular Surveillance Project, the Allegheny County IDDM registry, the Diabetes Epidemiology Research International Studies, and the DPPOS. In addition, Dr. Orchard has trained 24 doctoral students, 33 master’s students and 8 post-doctoral fellows. He currently serves as PI on the CVD Epidemiology T32 training grant. Dr. Orchard also has taught the Cardiovascular Epidemiology Course for the last 15 years, and instructs clinical endocrine and cardiology fellows rotating through his Lipid Clinic. Finally for the last 5 years Dr Orchard has been assisting the development of diabetes care in Rwanda, through a programme called Life for a Child which has also provided MPH students with the opportunity to conduct their practicum in Rwanda.
- Diabetes and cardiovascular epidemiology, with particular emphasis on insulin-dependent diabetes and lipids, management of lipid disorders, diabetes prevention
- Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications: Phase II (2004-2014) NIDDK
- Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (2006-2016) Case Western
- Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (2003-2015) NIDDK
- Evaluation of Differing Type 1 Diabetes Regimens in Youth in the Developing World (2010-2013) NIDDK
- Cardiovascular Epidemiology Training Program (2008-2013) NHLBI
- Oxidative Insults, Antioxidative Responses and Type 1 Diabetes (2009-2014) NIH
- Imaging Biomarkers of Accelerated Brain Aging in Type 1 Diabetes (2010-2014) NIDDK
- Diabetes Prevention Translation Project: the Healthy LIFESTYLE (2010-2014) NIDDK
- Pharmacologic Progression Strategies in Type 2 Diabetes (2011-2013) Sanofi Aventis
- Diagnostic and Therapeutic Targeting of Autoimmunity of T1D in T1D Heart Disease (2011-2016) NIDDK
- From Adolescence to Adulthood: Persons with and without Diabetes (2011-2017) NIH
- Initiate and Maintain Physical Activity in Clinics: The IMPACT Diabetes Study (2013-2018) NIDDK
Selected Publications (from past 7 years)
- Department of Epidemiology/Medicine: Nutrition Lipid Program
- Department of Epidemiology/UPDI: Diabetes Prevention Support Center
Pambianco G, Costacou T, Orchard TJ. The Prediction of Major Outcomes of Type 1 Diabetes: A 12 year prospective evaluation of three separate definitions of the metabolic syndrome and their components and estimated glucose disposal rate: The Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study Experience. Diabetes Care 2007; 30(5): 1248-1254.
Prince CT, Becker DJ, Costacou T, Miller RG, Orchard TJ. Changes in glycaemic control and risk of coronary artery disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus: findings from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC). Diabetologia 2007; 50: 2280-2288.
Costacou T, Ferrell R, Orchard TJ. Haptoglobin genotype: a determinant of cardiovascular complication risk in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2008; 57: 1702-1706.
The BARI 2D Study Group (Writing Group Member). A Randomized Trial of Therapies for Type 1 Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease. N Engl J Med 2009; 360(24): 2503-2515.
Shay CM, Evans RW, Orchard TJ. Do plant sterol concentrations correlate with coronary artery disease in type 1 diabetes? A report from the Pittsburgh EDC Study. J Diabetes 2009; 1: 112-117.
Bilous R, Chaturvedi N, Sjølie AK, Fuller J, Klein R, Orchard T, Porta M, Parving H-H. Effect of candesartan on microalbuminuria and albumin excretion rate in diabetes: Three randomized trials. Ann Intern Med 2009; 151(1): 11-20.
Conway B, Evans R, Fried L, Kelsey S, Edmundowicz D, Orchard T. Free fatty acids are associated with pulse pressure in women, but not men, with T1D. Metabolism 2009; 58:1215-1221. PMCID: PMC2734480.
DCCT/EDIC Research Group, Nathan DM, Zinman B, Cleary PA, Backlund J-Y, Genuth S, Miller, R, Orchard TJ. Modern Day Clinical Course of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus After 30 Years’ Duration: The DCCT/EDIC and Pittsburgh EDC Experience (1983-2005). Arch Intern Med 2009; 169(14): 1307-1316.
Conway B, Miller RG, Costacou T, Fried L, Kelsey S, Evans RW, Orchard TJ. Adiposity and mortality in type 1 diabetes. Int J Obes 2009; 33(7): 796-805. PMCID: PMC2755198.
Conway B, Costacou T, Orchard T. Is glycaemia or insulin dose the stronger risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 1 diabetes? Diab Vasc Dis Res 2009; 6: 223-230.
Conway BN, Miller RG, Klein R, Orchard TJ. Prediction of proliferative diabetic retinopathy with hemoglobin level. Arch Ophthalmol 2009; 127(11): 1494-1499. PMCID: PMC2778312.
Vergouwe Y, Soedamah-Muthu SS, Zgibor J, Chaturvedi N, Forsblom C, Snell-Bergeon JK, Maahs DM, Groop P-H, Rewers M, Orchard TJ, Fuller JH, Moons KGM. Progression to microalbuminuria in T1DM: development and validation of a prediction rule. Diabetologia 2010; 53: 254-262. PMCID: PMC2797626.
Kramer MK, Kriska AM, Venditti EM, Miller RG, Brooks MM, Burke LE, Siminerio LM, Solano FX, Orchard TJ. Translating the Diabetes Prevention Program. A Comprehensive Model for Prevention Training and Program Delivery. Am J Prev Med 2009; 36(6): 505-511.
Costacou T, Ferrell RE, Orchard TJ. Haptoglobin genotype and renal function decline in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2009; 58(12): 2904-2909. PMCID: PMC2780877.
Miller RG, Costacou T, Orchard TJ. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, C-reactive protein, and coronary artery disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes and macroalbuminuria. Diab Vasc Dis Res 2010; 7(1): 47-55. PMCID: PMC2858394.
Conway BN, Miller RG, Orchard TJ. Are Hemoglobin Levels Elevated in Type 1 Diabetes? Diabetes Care 2010; 33(2): 341-343. PMCID: PMC2809278.
Orchard TJ, Costacou T. When Are Type 1 Diabetic Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease? Curr Diab Rep 2010; 10: 48-54.
Prince CT, Secrest AM, Mackey RH, Arena VC, Kingsley LA, Orchard TJ. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, HDL cholesterol, and smoking correlate with arterial stiffness markers determined 18 years later in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2010; 33(3): 652-657. PMCID: PMC2827525
Conway B, Edmundowicz D, Matter N, Maynard J, Orchard T. Skin fluorescence correlates strongly with coronary artery calcification severity in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther 2010; 12(5): 339-345.
Conway B, Miller RG, Costacou T, Fried L, Kelsey S, Evans R, Orchard T. Temporal Patterns in Overweight and Obesity in Type 1 Diabetes. Diabet Med 2010; 27(4): 398-404.
Prince CT, Secrest AM, Mackey RH, Arena VC, Kingsley LA, Orchard TJ. Augmentation pressure and subendocardial viability ratio are associated with microalbuminuria and with poor renal function in type 1 diabetes. Diab Vasc Dis Res 2010; 7(3): 216-224. PMCID: PMC3047589 (available on 2011/7/6)
Smith KJ, Hsu HE, Roberts MS, Kramer MK, Orchard TJ, Piatt GA, Seidel MC, Zgibor JC, Bryce CL. Cost-effectiveness analysis of efforts to reduce risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Southwestern Pennsylvania, 2005-2007. Prev Chronic Dis 2009; 7(5): A109. PMCID: PMC2938403.
Lloyd CE, Pambianco G, Orchard T. Does diabetes-related distress explain the presence of depressive symptoms or poor self-care in individuals with Type 1 diabetes? Diabet Med 2010; 27(2): 234-237. PMCID: PMC3093054.
Zgibor JC, Ruppert K, Orchard TJ, Sodamah-Muthu SS, Fuller J, Chaturvedi N, Roberts MS. Development of a coronary heart disease risk prediction model for type 1 diabetes: The Pittsburgh CHD in Type 1 Diabetes Risk Model. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010; 88(3): 314-321. PMCID: PMC2891292.
Shay CM, Secrest AM, Goodpaster BH, Kelsey SF, Strotmeyer ES, Orchard TJ. Regional Adiposity and Risk for Coronary Artery Disease in Type 1 Diabetes: Does Having Greater Amounts of Gluteal-Femoral Adiposity Lower the Risk? Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010; 89(3): 288-295. PMCID: PMC2919619.
Orchard TJ, Secrest AM, Miller RG, Costacou T. In the absence of renal disease, 20-year mortality risk in type 1 diabetes is comparable to that of the generation population: a report from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study. Diabetologia 2010; 53(11): 2312-2319.
Secrest AM, Becker DJ, Kelsey SF, LaPorte RE, Orchard TJ. Cause-specific mortality trends in a large population-based cohort with long-standing childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2010; 59: 3216-3222. PMCID: PMC2992785.
Secrest AM, Becker DJ, Kelsey SF, Laporte RE, Orchard TJ. All-cause mortality trends in a large population-based cohort with long-standing childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2010; 33(12): 2573-2579. PMCID: PMC2992193.
Prince CT, Secrest AM, Mackey RH, Arena VC, Kingsley LA, Orchard TJ. Pulse wave analysis and prevalent cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes. Atherosclerosis 2010; 213(2): 469-474. PMCID: PMC2997940 (available on 2011/12/1).
Kramer MK, Kriska AM, Venditti EM, Semler LN, Miller RG, McDonald T, Siminerio, LM, Orchard TJ. A novel approach to diabetes prevention: evaluation of the Group Lifestyle Balance program delivered via DVD. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010; 90(3): e60-63.
Charles BA, Conley YP, Chen G, Miller RG, Dorman JS, Gorin MB, Ferrell RE, Sereika SM, Rotimi CN, Orchard TJ. Variants of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Gene are Protective against Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes. Ophthalmic Research 2010; 46(1): 1-8. PMCID: PMC2997447.
Pambianco G, Costacou T, Strotmeyer E, Orchard TJ. Risk factor associations with clinical distal symmetrical polyneuropathy and various neuropathy screening instruments and protocols in type 1 diabetes. Diab Res Clin Pract 2011; 91: e15-e20.
Piatt G, Songer T, Brooks M, Anderson R, Simmons D, Orchard T, Siminerio L, Korytkowski M, Zgibor J. Impact of Patient Level Factors on the Improvement of the ABCs of Diabetes. Patient Educ Couns 2011; 82: 266-270.
Secrest AM, Becker DJ, Kelsey SF, LaPorte RE, Orchard TJ. Characterizing sudden death and dead-in-bed syndrome in Type 1 diabetes: analysis from two childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes registries. Diabetic Medicine 2011; 28(3): 293-300. PMCID: PMC3045678.
Sjølie AK, Klein R, Porta M, Orchard T, Fuller J, Parving HH, Bilous R, Aldington S, Chaturvedi N. Retinal microaneurysm count predicts progression and regression of diabetic retinopathy. Post-hoc results from the DIRECT Programme. Diabet Med 2011; 28(3): 345-351.
Porta M, Hainer JW, Jansson SO, Malm A, Bilous R, Chaturvedi N, Fuller JH, Klein R, Orchard T, Parving H-H, Sjølie A-K on behalf of the DIRECT Study Group. Exposure to candesartan during the first trimester of pregnancy in type 1 diabetes: experience from the placebo-controlled diabetic retinopathy candesartan trials. Diabetologia 2011; 54: 1298-1303.
Conway BN, Aroda VR, Maynard JD, Matter N, Fernandez S, Ratner RE, Orchard TJ. Skin Intrinsic Fluorescence Correlates with Autonomic and Distal Symmetrical Polyneuropathy in Indivduals with Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2011; 34(4): 1000-1005. PMCID: PMC3064012.
Secrest AM, Costacou T, Gutelius B, Miller RG, Songer TJ, Orchard TJ. Association of socioeconomic status with mortality in type 1 diabetes: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study. Ann Epidemiol 2011 21(5): 367-373. PMCID: PMC3070912.
Secrest AM, Costacou T, Gutelius B, Miller RG, Songer TJ, Orchard TJ. Associations Between Socioeconomic Status and Major Complications in Type 1 Diabetes: The Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complication (EDC) Study. Ann Epidemiol 2011; 21(5): 374-381. PMCID: PMC3079455.
Pambianco G, Costacou T, Strotmeyer E, Orchard TJ. The assessment of clinical distal symmetric polyneuropathy in type 1 diabetes: A comparison of methodologies from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Cohort. Diabetes Res Clin Practi 2011; 92(2): 280-287.
Tillin T, Orchard T, Malm A, Fuller J, Chaturvedi N. The role of antihypertensive therapy in reducing vascular complications of type 2 diabetes. Findings from the DIabetic REtinopathy Candesartan Trials-Protect 2 Study. J Hypertens 2011 29(7): 1457-1462.
Costacou T, Fried L, Ellis D, Orchard TJ. Sex differences in the development of kidney disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a contemporary analysis. Am J Kidney Dis 2011; 58(4): 565-573. PMCID: PMC3183221.
Costacou T, Evans RW, Orchard TJ. High density lipoprotein cholesterol: is higher always better? J Clin Lipidol 2011; 5(5): 387-394. PMID: PMC3190122.
Secrest AM, Marshall SL, Miller RG, Prince CT, Orchard TJ. Pulse Wave Analysis and Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy in Type 1 Diabetes: A Report from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (EDC Study). Diabetes Technol Ther 2011; 13(12): 1264-1268. PMID: PMC3263305.
Yau JW, Rogers SL, Kawasaki R, Lamoureux EL, Kowalski JW, Chen SJ et al. Global Prevalence and Major Risk Factors of Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetes Care 2012; 35(3): 556-564. PMID: PMC3322721.
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. The 10-Year Cost-Effectiveness of Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin for Diabetes Prevention: An Intent-to-Treat Analysis of the DPP/DPPOS. Diabetes Care 2012; 35(4): 723-730. PMID: PMC 3308273 (available on 4/1/2013).
Kramer MK, Venditti E, Semler L, Kriska A, Miller RG, Orchard TJ. Long-term Strategies for Diabetes Prevention: Evluation of the Group Lifestyle Balance Post-Core Sessions Focusing on Carbohydrate and Hunger Management. J Diabetes Metab 2012; S2: 006.
Ix JH, Miller RG, Criqui MH, Orchard TJ. Test characteristics of the ankle-brachial index and ankle-brachial difference for medial arterial calcification on X-ray in type 1 diabetes. J Vasc Surg 2012; 56(3): 721-727. PMCID: PMC3415559.
Shay CM, Secrest AM, Miller RG, Strotmeyer ES, Goodpaster BH, Kelsey SF, Orchard TJ. Femoral-gluteal adiposity is not associated with insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med 2012; 29(11): 1407-1411. PMID: 22672227. PMCID in process (has been submitted).
Miller R, Secrest A, Sharma R, Songer T, Orchard T. Improvements in the life expectancy of type 1 diabetes: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study cohort. Diabetes 2012; 61(11): 2987-2992. PMCID: PMC3478551.
Conway BN, Aroda VR, Maynard JD, Matter N, Fernandez S, Ratner RE, Orchard TJ. Skin intrinsic fluorescence is associated with coronary artery disease in individuals with long duration of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2012; 35(11): 2331-2336. PMCID: PMC3476887.
Washington RE, Orchard TJ, Arena VC, LaPorte RE, Tull ES. Incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in youth in the US Virgin Islands, 2001-2010. Pediatr Diabetes 2012 Aug 28; 9999(9999). doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2012.00912.x. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 22925438.
Secrest AM, Prince CT, Costacou T, Miller RG, Orchard TJ. Predictors of and survival after incident stroke in type 1 diabetes. Diab Vasc Dis Res 2013; 10(1): 3-10. PMID: 22535586. PMCID in process (has been submitted).
Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study Research Group; Orchard T, Temprosa M, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler S, Goldberg R, Mather K, Marcovina S, Montez M, Ratner R, Saudek C, Sherif H, Watson K. Long-term effects of the Diabetes Prevention Program’s interventions on cardiovascular risk factors: a report from the DPP Outcomes Study. Diabet Med 2013; 30(1): 46-55. PMCID: PMC3524372.
Costacou T, Orchard TJ. Differential Effect of Glycemia on the Incidence of Hypertension by Sex: The Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study. Diabetes Care 2013; 36(1): 77-83. PMCID: PMC3526198.
Argyropoulos C, Wang K, McClarty S, Huang D, Bernardo J, Ellis D, Orchard T, Galas D, Johnson J. Urinary microRNA profiling in the nephropathy of type 1 diabetes. PLoS One 2013; 8(1): e54662. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone 0054662. PMCID: PMC3554645.
Aroda VR, Conway BN, Fernandez SJ, Matter NI, Maynard JD, Orchard TJ, Ratner RE. Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Noninvasively Detected Skin Intrinsic Fluoresence and Mean Hemoglobin A1c in Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther 2013; 15(2): 117-23. PMCID: PMC3558674.
Herman WH, Edelstein SL, Ratner RE, Montez MG, Ackermann RT, Orchard TJ, Foulkes MA, Zhang P, Saudek CD, Brown MB; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of diabetes prevention among adherent participants. Am J Manage Care 2013; 19(3): 194-202. PMID: 23544761. PMCID in process (has been submitted).
Nagareddy PR, Murphy AJ, Stirzaker RA, Hu Y, Yu S, Miller RG, Ramkhelawon B, Distel E, Westerterp M, Huang LS, Schmidt AM, Orchard TJ, Fisher EA, Tall AR, Goldberg IJ. Hyperglycemia promotes myelopoiesis and impairs the resolution of atherosclerosis. Cell Metab. 2013; 17(5): 695-708. PMID: 23663738. PMCID in process (has been submitted).
Marshall SL, Edidin D, Sharma V, Ogle G, Arena VC, Orchard T. Current clinical status, glucose control, and complications rates of children and youth with type 1 diabetes in Rwanda. Pediatr Diabetes 2013; 14(3): 217-226. PMID: 23279222. PMCID in process (has been submitted).
Costacou T, Evans RW, Schaffer GL, Orchard TJ. Oxidative stress and response in relation to coronary artery disease in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2013. (in press).
Fickley CE, Lloyd CE, Costacou T, Miller RG, Orchard TJ. Type A behavior and risk of all-cause mortality, CAD, and CAD-related mortality, in a type 1 diabetes population: 22 years of follow-up in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study- Pittsburgh. Diabetes Care, 2013. (in press).
Orchard T, Lyons T, Cleary P, Braffett B, Maynard J, Cowie C, Gubitosi-Klug R, Anderson K, Barnie A, Villavicencio S and the DCCT/EDIC Research Group. The Association of Skin Intrinsic Fluorescence with Type 1 Diabetes Complications in the DCCT/EDIC Study. Diabetes Care 2013. (in press).
Orchard TJ, Wun W, Cleary P, Genuth S, Gloria AC, Lachin JM, McGee P, Paterson AD, Raskin P, Anbinder Y, Levy AP, and the DCCT/EDIC Research Group. Haptoglobin Genotype and the Rate of Renal Function Decline in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study. Diabetes, 2013. (in press).
Cleary P, Braffett B, Orchard T, Lyons T, Maynard J, Cowie C, Gubitoski-Klug R, Anderson K, Barnie A, Villavicencio S. Clinical Factors Associated with Skin Intrinsic Fluorescence in Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes from the DCCT/EDIC Study. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 2013. (in press).